This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. Xanthines can cause a mild diuresis. Do not freeze liquid forms of this medication. Theophylline should not be used concurrently with other preparations containing xanthine derivatives. Common side effects of xanthines include: Nausea; Vomiting; Diarrhea; Headaches; Irritability; Flushing; Palpitations; Other side effects of xanthines include: Diuresis; Restlessness; Tremor; Insomnia; Possible serious side effects of xanthines include: Seizures; Shock; Heart arrhythmias ; Hypotension; Exfoliative dermatitis PRECAUTIONS: Avoid drinking large amounts of beverages containing caffeine (coffee, tea, colas) or eating large amounts of chocolate. Drug Name Confusion: Preventing Medication Errors, Congress Passes Pandemic Economic Relief Package, Biden Picks Obamacare Supporter to Head HHS, Health Coverage Takes Big Hit With Job Cuts. Do not change brands of this medication without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. Symptoms of overdose may include unusually fast or slow heartbeat, loss of appetite, nausea/vomiting, sleeplessness, irritability, restlessness, headache, increased thirst, fever, ringing in ears, delirium, muscle twitching or weakness, seizures, sweating, or fast breathing. MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take as soon as remembered; do not take if it is almost time for the next dose, instead, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. In addition to clinical reference tools, Medscape offers: Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. Effects of xanthine derivatives on electroretinographic responsiveness. Do not "double-up" the dose to catch up. Crushing or chewing them may destroy the long action and increase the possibility of side effects. Do not start or stop any medicine without doctor or pharmacist approval. Caffeine can increase side effects of this medication. Access health plan drug formulary information when looking up a particular drug, and save time and effort for you and your patient. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Theophylline side effects. Sign Up for MedicineNet Newsletters. Inform your doctor if you experience: chest pain, rapid or irregular heartbeat, confusion, severe stomach pain, breathing difficulties. They should avoid irritants and drink fluids to help thin secretions. The active ingredient in the drug is the compound Doxofylline that is a Xanthine derivative. Xanthines also stimulate muscle and cardiac cells and neurons. By continuing to view the drug information, you agree to abide by such terms of use. What are the side effects of xanthines? The net inhibitory effect on the mitogenic stimulation of human lymphocytes from healthy volunteers was compared for pentoxifylline, propentofylline and two other xanthine derivatives, theophylline and diphylline (Table 5). If stomach upset occurs, it may be taken with food. Eliminating carbon dioxide from the blood is important, because as it builds up in the blood, headaches, drowsiness, coma, and eventually death may occur. Patients will need serum blood levels tested every six to twelve months. The chemical formula of Doxofylline is C11H14N4O4. The effect of xanthine derivatives on the voltage-activated Cl − conductance (G Cl) of amphibian skin was analyzed. Many xanthine bronchodilator users experience no, or minor, side effects, particularly if serum theophylline levels are less than 20 mcg/mL. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Terms of Use. Do not store in the bathroom. Nervousness and insomnia Treatment of COPD includes GOLD guidelines, smoking cessation, medications, and surgery. Medscape's clinical reference is the most authoritative and accessible point-of-care medical reference for physicians and healthcare professionals, available online and via all major mobile devices. Click on citations within drug and disease topics in our clinical reference to review the clinical evidence on MEDLINE. COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung condition caused by smoking tobacco, exposure to secondhand smoke, and/or air pollutants. For enrollment information call MedicAlert at 1-800-854-1166 (USA), or 1-800-668-1507 (Canada). Conditions that accompany COPD include chronic bronchitis, chronic cough, and emphysema. They can also facilitate physician-patient discussions. Symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath, wheezing, and chronic cough. NOTES: Don't change your diet without first checking with your doctor. The in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and enzyme kinetics studies showed that hesperitin derivatives displayed a potential inhibition against XO in competitive manner with IC 50 value ranging from 9.0 to 23.15 µM and HET4 was revealed as most active derivative. Do this by taking doses at evenly spaced intervals. Plus, more than 600 drug monographs in our drug reference include integrated dosing calculators. Xanthines side effects. STORAGE: Store at room temperature away from moisture and sunlight. Doctors rarely prescribe theophylline anymore because many people experience significant side effects. Hundreds of image-rich slideshow presentations visually engage and challenge readers while expanding their knowledge of both common and uncommon diseases, case presentations, and current controversies in medicine. The air we breathe in (inhalation) is warmed, humidified, and cleaned by the nose and the lungs. High doses of methylxanthines, especially caffeine, may potentially cause [94, 95, 96, 97, 33]: Headache; Nausea; Anxiety; Mood shift; Rapid heartbeat; Caffeine may also elevate blood pressure in high doses . This medication works best when taken on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after meals. Tell your doctor your complete medical history especially if you are taking medicine (beta-blockers) for high blood pressure. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. MEDICAL ALERT: Your condition can cause complications in a medical emergency. Because small amounts of this drug appear in breast milk, consult with your doctor before breast-feeding. It is an overdose reaction to the xanthine alkaloid theobromine. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Uncommon and rare side effects include angina, palpitations, hypersensitivity, itchiness, rash, hives, bleeding, hallucinations, arrhythmias, and aseptic meningitis. The frequency and severity of side effects depend on many factors including dose, duration of therapy, and individual susceptibility. EP0811623B1 - Xanthine derivatives with end-aminated alkynol side chains - Google Patents Xanthine derivatives with end-aminated alkynol side chains Download PDF … Xanthine derivatives The main xanthine derivative is theophylline. SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, heartburn, stomach pain, loss of appetite, restlessness, nervousness, sleeplessness or increased urination may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. Author information: (1)Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, University of Belgrade, 29 Novembra 142, 11000, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The incidence of severe side effects was much less frequent than mild side effects (1.2–3.8% to 20.1–38.7%). CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. Nausea, vomiting, diuresis, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, headaches, and tremors. The functional role of Doxofylline is similar to that of Theophylline but with fewer side-effects. The xanthines have many minor side effects (anxiety, nervousness, tremor, headache, dizziness) but are largely well tolerated in the doses used to treat asthma and chronic bronchitis. The topics provided are comprehensive and span more than 30 medical specialties, covering: More than 6000 evidence-based and physician-reviewed disease and condition articles are organized to rapidly and comprehensively answer clinical questions and to provide in-depth information in support of diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical decision-making. Medscape is the leading online destination for healthcare professionals seeking clinical information. Requires evaluation of therapeutic blood level to prevent toxicity: Long-term treatment of chronic asthma and COPD unresponsive to other treatment: GI: Nausea, vomiting. Topics are richly illustrated with more than 40,000 clinical photos, videos, diagrams, and radiographic images. Customize your Medscape account with the health plans you accept, so that the information you need is saved and ready every time you look up a drug on our site or in the Medscape app. EP0811623A1 - Xanthine derivatives with end-aminated alkynol side chains - Google Patents Smoking affects this medication. The amount found in chocolate is small enough that chocolate can, in general, is safely consumed by humans. So sind Coffein und Theophyllin im Kaffee enthalten, Theobromin im Kakao. The lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood. This copyrighted material has been downloaded from a licensed data provider and is not for distribution, except as may be authorized by the applicable terms of use. DRUG INTERACTIONS: Inform your doctor about all the medicines you use (both prescription and nonprescription), especially if you take: cimetidine, erythromycin, troleandomycin, mexiletine, tacrine, barbiturates, disulfiram, rifampin, thiabendazole, birth control pills, rifabutin, ticlopidine, quinolone antibiotics, beta-blockers, phenytoin, fluvoxamine (an SSRI antidepressant), St John's wort. The clinical information represents the expertise and practical knowledge of top physicians and pharmacists from leading academic medical centers in the United States and worldwide. Canadian residents should call their local poison control center directly. See additional information. Theophylline can cause nausea, vomiting, CNS stimulation, nervousness, and insomnia. Xanthine is produced naturally by both plants and animals. CNS stimulation. The xanthines, which are purine analogues, are non-selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase and also antagonists at adenosine receptors. It is expected that these xanthine derivatives show pharmacological actions such as tracheal relaxant and positive chronotropic ones, which are side effects when these xanthines are used as biochemical modulators. Keeping this in consideration, what are side effects of xanthine derivatives? 7. Adverse/Side Effects. Therapeutic Effects Adverse/Side Effects; Xanthine: theophylline: Avoid caffeine. Not all brands are identical in action. Medscape Reference features 129 medical calculators covering formulas, scales, and classifications. The life expectancy of a person with COPD depends on the stage of the disease. Be sure to tell your doctor if you smoke or use nicotine. Bronchodilators and Other Respiratory Agents . SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, heartburn, stomach pain, loss of appetite, restlessness, nervousness, sleeplessness or increased urination may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. Xanthine derivatives have been used in allergic asthma for their bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties; however, these agents have multiple side effects. US residents can call the US national poison hotline at 1-800-222-1222. Want More News? If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor. If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor. More than 7100 monographs are provided for prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as for corresponding brand-name drugs, herbals, and supplements. Owing to their ability to relax bronchial muscles, the xanthines are used chiefly in the maintenance treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Xanthine kommen auch als Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe vor. Choose from our complete list of over 1800 insurance plans across all 50 US states. More than 1000 clinical procedure articles provide clear, step-by-step instructions and include instructional videos and images to allow clinicians to master the newest techniques or to improve their skills in procedures they have performed previously. OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact your local poison control center or emergency room immediately. Surprisingly, pentoxifylline and propentofylline inhibited the mitogenic stimulation to a far greater effect than the other xanthine derivatives. If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor. All content is free. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. Our Drug Interaction Checker provides rapid access to tens of thousands of interactions between brand and generic drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and supplements. Easily compare tier status for drugs in the same class when considering an alternative drug for your patient. [1] Patient Teaching & Education. MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. General information. More than 100 anatomy articles feature clinical images and diagrams of the human body's major systems and organs. Drug images are also included. Patients should be sure to take medications as prescribed at appropriate intervals. Medication Uses | How To Use | Side Effects | Precautions | Drug Interactions | Overdose | Notes | Missed Dose | Storage | Medical Alert. Long acting capsules and tablets must be swallowed whole. Die entwässernde Wirkung sollte dennoch besonders in der Kombination mit synthetischen Entwässerungsmitteln … Alle drei haben eine schwache bis mittelstarke entwässernde Wirkung. The clearance of theophylline is increased by barbiturates, carbamazepine, lithium, phenytoin, rifampicin and sulphinpyrazone and it may therefore be necessary to increase dosage. All methylxanthines are generally safe and well-tolerated in moderate amounts normally present in foods and drinks. The therapeutic level is 10-20 micrograms/mL blood; signs of toxicity include tremor, nausea, nervousness, and tachycardia/arrhythmia. Title: Effect of Methylxanthine Derivatives on Doxorubicin Transport and Antitumor Activity VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 4 Author(s):A. Kakuyama (nee Iwazaki) and Y. Sadzuka Affiliation:Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University,45-1 Nagaotogecho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0101, Japan. Xanthine Derivatives: Dosing, Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Patient Handouts, Pricing and more from Medscape Reference Large amounts of char-broiled foods or a high protein, low carbohydrate diet can affect the action of this medication. SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, heartburn, stomach pain, loss of appetite, restlessness, nervousness, sleeplessness or increased urination may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 to 10 for COPD, 5 to 15 for asthma and keep under 20, in general. Theophylline may cause side effects. In Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), 2016. It is used in the treatment of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. 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